Dr. Ioannis N. Kallianiotis

Economics/Finance Department
The Arthur J. Kania School of Management
University of Scranton
Scranton, PA 18510-4602


The hope of this work is to provide, from an archaeological perspective, some information and a scientifically true presentation of the 8,000 years old Hellenic (Greek) history and to examine what this objective information means to us and to the world as a whole. We will offer some thoughts on a few unshaken archaeological findings and some historic events that may help to answer questions concerning today‚s conditions in south-eastern Europe (Balkans), the borders of the “Christendom” (currently, European Union or “Eurostan”). It is imperative that all scholars, politicians, decision makers, students, and intellectual human beings must have this information regarding an artificial state, Skopje, created recently between Greece and Serbia by some “sacrilegious alliance”, because we are responsible, as educators, for all young people of this planet and we must tell them the plain truth in simple words, away from any political expediency, propaganda, and anti-scientific delusion. This new state has unlawfully chosen the Greek name “Macedonia” and appropriate Greek history for its nation and Greece is objecting their aggressiveness and their expansiveness. It is historically wrong for them to use Greek names, history, and symbols because they have nothing in common with Greeks or Macedonians and their old name was Banovina Vardarska.

I. A Brief Hellenic History

Hellenic history, philosophy, culture, paideia, Orthodoxy, and civilization in general have contributed a great deal to the European and the entire western civilization that we find their seal everywhere, today; but they have also caused some strong enemies, due to envy and inferiority syndrome that many “allies” have towards Hellas. The democracy of ancient Greece, the accomplishments of her people, the great ideas of her moral philosophers, scientists and artists, and finally, the dramatic events which have unfolded in the glorious history of the Greek nation because of its geographical position and its persistence in the traditional Christian-Orthodox truth (the only Truth) have always been a source of creative inspiration to all nations. Greece has truly improved mankind and still has a long way to go, after a new repentance.
The ancient Hellenic civilization is called the “classical” one; later the word “classical” became the source of standards by which subsequent achievements can be measured. “There is a quality of excellence about Ancient Greece that brooks few comparisons.” These peoples (Greeks) shared the same language (in an oral and written literature) and they recognized a common heritage “Hellenes” ( Ἕλληνες), which they did not share with other men. They belonged, as they felt, to  Hellas . The non-Greeks were  barbarians . The achievement and importance of Greece comprehended all sides of life.  The Greeks did more for future civilization than any of their predecessors.”  All Europe drew interest on the “capital” Greece laid down, and through Europe the rest of the world has benefited from what Greeks offered to human civilization. Alexander, the son of Philip, is one of those historical Greek figures called “Great”. He was a passionate Hellene, who believed Achilles was his ancestor and carried with him on his campaigns a treasured copy of Homer. He had been tutored by the greatest of all scientists and philosophers (πανεπιστήμων), Aristotle. Alexander the Great had a staggering record of success, even though that he died at the age of 33 years old. The history of Europe and the history of the Western civilization is the history of the Greek-Christian civilization. Indisputable, Roman civilization was descended from the earliest Greek (Hellenic) civilization. Today, the European Union and the entire West have changed drastically because of so many influences by different agnostic sub-cultures. [The current] “European, or Western, civilization originated from the fusion of German (barbarian) culture and Roman (Hellenic-Christian) civilization during the Dark Ages from the 5th to the 10th century A.D.” Of course, history repeats itself. There were even monetary and economic unions in Ancient Greece, i.e., “the Common of Euboeans”, in 2nd century B.C., where they issued a common currency, but they did not last for very long time because of the oppression by the strong members on their weak member-states.History, scientific truth, divine justice, morality, social responsibility, and human respect are social necessities and they require satisfaction. Divine Justice prevails at all times on individuals and nations. Each man enjoys existence according to his labor and his virtues (he must be impeccable) and by himself he determines his future, his heritage, his nation and thus, affects the world. Mutual solidarity, joint responsibility, and real love are essential not only for the life of families, but also for the history of nations and the coexistence of this Cosmos (Kόσμος= order, ornament). Moral, ethical, and uncorrupted leadership is necessary to promote patriotism, indigenous value system, and the rights of a sovereign nation.
Lately, the Hellenes (Greeks), even though that they are members of NATO and European Union (EU), remain ever-vigilant against the expansionistic plans of all their neighbors and especially now, since the fall of the communism, Skopjeans have begun to make claims against northern Greece. They have spread far and wide propaganda that Macedonians are not Greeks and they style themselves as the true Macedonians (sic). They have spread lies and disinformation everywhere in every ignorant of history or controlled by the dark powers nations, as the United States, Canada, Australia, and Europe. But the question remains, how can they be Macedonians without being Greeks? And, how dared some nations to turn a blind eye to the historic and scientific truth and recognize this pseudo-state as “Macedonia”? It is obvious by now what is their objective and their future role in human history.

II. The Innumerable Archaeological Evidence

Numerous Archeological evidences suggest that the Hellenic peninsula, the island of Crete, and the Aegean Cycladic Islands had been inhabited as far back as 6000 B.C. During the Bronze Age (3000-2800 B.C.), these inhabitants developed great cities, powerful navies and rich commerce, resulting in two great civilizations, the Cycladic-Minoan (2500-1400 B.C.) that we can see in Thera (Santorini), Knossos, and Phestos, and the Mycenaean (1600-1100 B.C.) found in Peloponnesos. The Iliad, the Homeric epic, written in approximately the 9th century B.C. illustrates this point through the story of the famed Trojan expedition of the Mycenaeans and many other famous Greek city-states led by the glorious king Agamemnon. Therefore, Greeks are in Asia Minor since 11th century B.C. Also, the DNA tests prove that 99.5% of Greeks were Caucasian tribes (white race). They have not been affected by Slavs or Turks, as some anti-Greek theories are asserted, even though that Greece was 400 years under Turkish occupation. Hellenes were and are a unique race without assimilations, due to their Hellenic culture and Orthodox faith, even today with the imposed globalization (“multi-culturalism”=global illiberality).
Also, historical and archaeological evidence point to the existence of Greek-speaking inhabitants occupying the rugged northern slopes of Pindos mountain as early as 2200-2100 B.C. These Greek tribes thought to have split from the main bulk of the Indo-European family in the course of the 5th millennium- spread throughout the area known today as northern Greece. During the early centuries of the second millennium B.C., three basic groups can already be distinguished. First, the South-Eastern group made up Ionians; second, the Eastern group with its two linguistic subgroups, one speaking the Arcadian and the other the Aeolian Greek dialect; and third, the Western group, mainly composed of the populous tribe of the Makedni (Mακεδνοί).Historically, Skopje (Vardarska) is far away to the north of the geographical borders of Macedonia. The half of today‚s Skopje is part of North Greece (Greek Macedonia), which is under occupation (we can see it from all the Greek cities and villages that are in Skopje). Racially, Macedonians are Dorian tribes (Δωρικόν καὶ Μακεδνόν ἔθνος), which settled after the 800 B.C. in Macedonia coming from Epirus and occupied other related Thracian tribes.During the reign of Amyntas, Philip II, and Alexander the Great, the Macedonian rival was at its highest point. The fact that the ancient Macedonians belonged to the world of the Hellenes is hardly disputed by objective scholars. Recent archaeological finds, in conjunction with linguistic analyses, the discovery of scores of new inscriptions with Greek personal and place names, the diffusion of Greek language and culture throughout the then known world by Alexander the Great and the Macedonians, establish the continuity of Greek culture in time and the strong bonds uniting the Macedonians to other Greeks geographically. The latest finds at Vergina and Dion fully corroborate this view.Archaeological excavations during the last forty years have brought to light hundreds of ancient Greek cities, temples, palaces, theaters, and tombs, one of which is the famous tomb of King Philip, and many other treasures of an exquisite workmanship and design. Chronologically, they cover the most important periods of the Greek history from the Mycenaean up to the classical times. Their number has increased to such an extent, that in the years to come, they will very probably exceed those found of the southern part of the country, which was wrongly considered to constitute the main body of Greek antiquity. Therefore, when speaking of ancient Greece, one must have in mind her northern part as well (i.e., Macedonia, Thrace, and Epirus) and Asia Minor, too. Today, many archaeological treasures have sent their message of a Greek Macedonia to every one who desires the truth.Hellenic influence can be seen in Macedonia findings at Dion, Pella, Sindos, Vergina, Aiani, and Northern Macedonia (those parts of ancient Macedonia now belonging to Southern Skopje-Vardarska and South-Western Bulgaria). Architecture, sculpture, painting, decoration, artistic forms, city and street planning at these sites are all Greek! The inscriptions and depictions found on ancient Macedonia coins relate exclusively to Hellenic life and art. There are no ancient Greek coins in existence bearing foreign language inscriptions!Under the Roman occupation, the Macedonian provinces thrived and attracted new settlers from East and from Italy, while Jewish communities made their appearance for the first time, after the destruction of Jerusalem by Romans. Although Greece was conquered, the Greek culture “subjugated” the Roman culture and was transferred to the rest of Europe. Inscriptions prove, however, that as far as language is concerned most of these settlers were gradually Hellenized. Undeniably, not only Macedonia is Greek, but all the cities of the Mediterranean Sea (Europe and Africa) are Greek colonies, which transferred the Hellenic heritage to the West.Of course, the archaeological treasures have largely contributed in assessing the achievements realized by ancient Greeks in Macedonia during the 4th Century B.C., and has led to the conclusion that throughout this period Greek art and technology had, actually, reached a climax of perfection; and, what is more, Macedonia the new Greek super power that has succeeded Athens after its decline constituted part of the ancient Greek world and a continuation of its civilization.In addition, important evidence concerning the Hellenic origins of ancient Macedonians can be found in contemporary sources. They emphasize the difference between Macedonians (as Greeks) and others (non Greeks). Macedonians were distinguished from the alien barbarians around them, who were described as warlike, blood-thirsty looters with tattooed bodies. There are, however, no contemporary sources that indicate ancient Greeks considered Macedonians as non-Greeks. In addition, two Persian inscriptions of the 5th and 6th Centuries B.C., present us with other strong evidence.Thus, the final blow against Skopje‚s claims are the Greek inscriptions of ancient Macedonia. The only other language found in Macedonian inscriptions is Latin from the Roman empire. These Latin inscriptions, however, are very few! The ancient Macedonians were Greeks. Research conducted at the Center for Greek and Roman Antiquities of the National Research Institute brings new proof of the Greekness of Macedonia. These are evidences that emerge from many years of studies of ancient texts, some six thousand inscriptions with subject the language of those inscriptions, the names of 10,000 ancient Macedonians, which have been recorded, and the institutions of the Macedonian nation.The development of the Hellenic world by Alexander the Great and his heirs is well known. Alexander the Great, a Greek-Macedonian, became Commander in Chief of all Greece, not only of Macedonia. His Hellenization plan offered foreign barbarians a Greek education. His heirs continued his work by promoting the Greek language from the Mediterranean Sea up to the Indus River, thereby accomplishing the Hellenization of the ancient world. This period is, therefore, not called the Macedonian, but the Hellenistic period! These were God‚s (their “Unknown God‚s”) Plans and His Providence led Greeks to become His “chosen people”.   Against every serious historical study and contrary to the archaeological findings, Skopjeans insist that they are directly descendants of Alexander the Great. Even though that it is well known that the basic national identity (language and ancestry) is undoubtedly Slavic. Are they Slavenized Greeks This is true for a large proportion of their citizens, who are Greek-Macedonians and were forced to become Slavs. They tried to give a scientific tone by basing their assertions to their ignorant of history; they have gone in such great lies, which are inconceivable to be captured by human minds. Trojans, an Arian tribe, as every one knows, were related to Greeks. Until now, we know that Turks claim that Trojans were their ancestors. But Turks came as nomads in that region after the 1000 A.D. Now, the Slavs from Skopje claim them. Were Trojans Slavic people or Turkish?  These two nations (Skopje and Turkey) are both visitors of history in these Greek lands that they live (occupy) today!.. Also, Skopjeans reached the point to write that they have decoded Linear A (Γραμμικὴ A) script and that it was Slavic language (sic). The contemporary  scholar  Beltsefski has written a  study , in which she says that Iliad and Odyssey are written in a proto-Slavic dialect very closed to the so-called Slavomacedonian. In the American Library of Congress, in the entry “Macedonian language” says that “the oldest written monuments globally are in ancient Macedonian language” and many other improbable monstrosities. In other words, they destroy the science of History and the worst is that they found co-conspirators for this unique crime. This is the evolution of science, today! It has nothing to do with the truth. We see astonishing rubbishes, here, and without any limits. Pseudo-scientists lead their students and the entire world to a fabricated delusion. This is actually, the era of misinformation!..When the ancient writers were writing about Macedonians that they were speaking  Macedonian  (Μακεδονιστί), they were referring to a Greek dialect and not to a non-Greek language. In 1986, it was revealed a detachment of an inscription in Pella written in Macedonian dialect (dated around 380 B.C.). This is the famous damnation («κατάδεσμος») of Pella. This damnation is as follows in the ancient language and in its translation in Modern Greek:

1. Γιὰ τὸν γάμο τῆς [Θετι]μας καὶ τοῦ Διονυσοφώντα γράφω τὴν κατάρα, καὶ γιὰ ὅλες τὶς ἄλλες γυ     2. [ναῖκ]ες, χῆρες καὶ παρθένες, ἀλλὰ γιὰ τὴν Θετίμα περισσότερο, καὶ ἀναθέτω στὸν Μάκρωνα καὶ  3. [τοὺς] δαίμονες ὅτι μόνον ὅταν ξεθάψω καί ξετυλίξω καί ξαναδιαβάσω 4. [τότε] τότε νά παντρευτοῦν τόν Διονυσοφώντα καὶ ὄχι πρὶν καὶ εἴθε νὰ μὴν παντρευτῆ ἄλλη γυναίκα, παρὰ μόνον ἐμενα    5. καὶ εἴθε νὰ γεράσω μὲ τὸν Διονυσοφώντα καὶ κανέναν ἄλλο. Ἱκέτις σου εἶμαι: 6. δεῖξτε εὐσπλαχνία στὴν [εὐνοουμένη] σας, ἀγαπημένοι δαίμονες, τὴν Δαγινα(;), γιατὶ μὲ ἐγκατέλειψαν ὅλοι οἱ ἀγαπημένοι μου  7. παρακαλῶ φυλάξτε με αὐτὰ νὰ μὴ συμβοῦν καὶ μὲ τρόπο κακὸ νὰ χαθῆ ἡ Θετίμα 8. καὶ σὲ μένα δῶστε εὐδαιμονία καὶ μακαριότητα.

This inscription, as well as others, which have in the mean time been unveiled, confirms without reservation the Greek character of the Macedonian dialect. I do not think that there is any need for comments for the Macedonian dialect. It is just a plain Greek language. Then, what the pseudo-historians are saying is just a big lie. There are many academics, which have proven that the Macedonian dialect is a North Greek dialect. Many Classical Lexicons support this view, too.It is depressing for the Greeks to have to prove not only to the counterfeiters of history, the Skopjeans; but also to the “civilized” nations of the world, who ignore history or are occupied with their own socio-politico-economic problems, that the Greek treasures of Vergina, Pella, Dion, and of the entire Macedonia are Greek. The area of Skopje in ancient times was called Dardania and not Macedonia. This name can and must be given to the Skopjean Democracy.     Lastly, Skopje‚s theory, supported by political expediency and propaganda regarding the control of the region as the ultimate objective, that the ancient Macedonians were not Greek is not the outcome of a scientific reassessment of existing evidence, but merely a tool to promote the fiction of Macedonian separateness even in that remote era. It contradicts the recent finds in Vergina and Dion of scores of tombstones all of which bear Greek names. These tombstones provide strong archaeological evidence of the Hellenic origins of the Macedonians. They prove that even ordinary people, not in any way connected with the royal family or the so-called “Hellenized elite”, bore ordinary Greek names like any citizen of Athens, Thebes, Corinth or Sparta. With the passage of time, almost a millennium, Slavs did settle in Northern Macedonia, but there has been no evidence whatsoever during the Byzantine Empire or later during the Ottoman Empire that any of these Slavs in any way merited singling out as a separate group and still less being labeled “Macedonians”. Greek historians support the view of most foreign scholars that such Slavs as lived in Macedonia in the 19th and early 20th centuries considered themselves to be Bulgarians, as a rule and their imaginary “Macedonian” language is a Bulgarian dialect.

III. Epilogue

On August 15, 1944, the Jewish descent marshal Tito (his true name was Josip Broz) renamed the province of Vardarska Banovina to “Macedonia”, hoping in future territorial claims against Greece. About 60 years later, an American (of misty origin), Matthew Nimetz, demands shamelessly from the Greek governments to recognize this Slavic province with the Greek name “Macedonia”. What ignorant of history and unlimited impudence that these assigners of the dark powers (unholy alliance) have! Even worse, the same happened with the communist leader of ELAS, Aris Velouchiotis (Ἄρης Βελουχιώτης), who promised to offer Macedonia to his Bulgarian comrades. This is part of a delusion that some people live and a long historical fire sale and betrayal of Greece.  The unprincipled government of Mitsotakis (N.D.) in 1992 gave the green light for the composite name to this artificial nation with the word “Macedonia” in it, as FYROM. On February 2, 1992, the foreign ministers of the EEC (EU) rejected the name “Nova Macedonia”. Also, on October 2, 1992, the U.S. candidate for the presidency, Bill Clinton, declared in writing that “I support the recent decision of the European Union according to which the former Yugoslav Republic was recognized as independent nation with the condition not to include in its name the word ŒMacedonia‚.”  But, on April 7, 1993, the General Assembly of the U.N. voted for the recognition of this new nation (and Greece voted the same way) with the name as “Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia” (FYROM). This was the ill-omened day, where the first and the only one non-Greek nation was recognized (was born) with the Greek name “Macedonia”.   Indisputably, the role of Hellenism is historic and humanistic and as time passes the vast majority of people will realize it- because it was able many times in the past to re-orientate humanity. Hellenism is a global movement of ancient moral philosophy combined with the revealed truth of Christianity, the Holy Orthodoxy. Its advantage exists in the adoption of the moderation, the spiritual, the eternal, and the truthful, and at the same time in the rejection of the exaggeration, the materialistic, the transitory, and above all the bold lie. How many today understand this unique culture, which is called the Hellenic Orthodox Culture ( Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Παιδεία)The race, which possesses this culture, has the unique ability to reach the highest accomplishments and surpass the pathless degeneration of the human civilization left behind in every historic period. The universal ideas of Hellenism constitute an inexhaustible source of alternating everlasting values. The principles of Hellenism that have changed the intellectual trends of humanity throughout history, have been born to this small geographical region, which for three thousand years obstinately resists the undermining efforts of the “civilized” world and the hordes of barbarians, and the current unholy alliance. One representative of this race is Alexander the Great, the Macedonian Greek commander of the army who civilized the world and refined and united Hellenism.It is clear when, objectively examined, that the “Macedonian Question” for Greece cannot exist and the “Macedonian Problem” is a non-issue. The legal status quo of the northern borders of Greece are determined with international treaties, like the Treaty of Bucharest (1913), which ended the second Balkan War, and the Peace Treaties at the end of the two World Wars, of Neigy (1919) and of Paris (1947). Also, Macedonia is a geographic concept and not an ethnic notion. In fact, only one country can identify herself, for historical reasons, with Macedonia. That country is Greece, which has been inextricably linked with Macedonia for more than 4,000 years.The fact, that the ancient Macedonians belong to the world of Greeks, is very difficult to dispute any longer. The new archeological treasures in connection with linguistic analyses and the findings of a great number of new inscriptions «all Greek» with rich samples of Greek names prove that there is no discontinuation of either cultural or linguistic of the unity of the Macedonians with the rest of the Greeks. Also, the spreading of the Greek language and the Greek civilization and culture to the entire known world from the Macedonians of the Alexander the Great constitutes the most categorical confirmation of this event. This event is confirmed every year by the new archeological findings that are coming to light either at the large excavations of Pella, Vergina, Dion, and Sindos, or in dozens less known, like in areas of Voion, Aeani, Kozani, Kastoria, Florina, Edessa, Aridaea, Kilkis, Kavala, and of course, Thessaloniki and Chalkidiki (Petralona), and others.Greece, every Greek, and every one who has an objective knowledge of history are opposed to Skopje‚s name as “Macedonia”. Skopje‚s peoples are not properly a distinct nation, but belong, by language and culture, to one or another, or perhaps all three of the neighboring Slavic states (they have nothing in common with Hellenic Macedonians). Recognition of Skopje as “Macedonia” is historically, scientifically, and morally wrong. Skopjean propaganda in the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, and other papers around the world is unconscionable, constant, and provocative.  If Skopje were to give up the policy of misappropriating the term “Macedonians”; if it were to adopt, for instance, another term, (such as “Vardarians” or “Dardanians” or “Sclavinians”) in order to designate the Slav inhabitants of South Yugoslavia and possibly certain émigré groups who share her views; the Greeks, naturally, would have no quarrel with this state of affairs. Finally, despite differences with Skopje (and their propulsive “friends”) on these issues, Greek-Serbian relations are positive on many domains as both sides realize the mutual benefits of good, friendly, and cooperative and neighborly relations. But, both nations realized that Skopje and Kosovo have been put between Greece and Serbia by other powers (the sacrilegious alliance), which are against these two homodox nations. Greeks, Serbians, Bulgarians, Russians, Rumanians, and all the other Eastern European nations have something in common that is not common to this world, we cannot find it anywhere else. They are “brothers in Christ”, Christian Orthodox nations and have to be united. We hope that Skopje will realize its historic and anti-scientific mistakes and go back to its true name, “Vardarska”. After the collapse of communism, the cosmos awaits these peoples‚ contribution to its history and Greece can play once more an important role in their re-Christianization and promotion of peace and prosperity in the Balkans, which have to be independent from any foreign influence.

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